September 18, 1997




Mr. Stan Breite
156 Upper Whitfield Road
Accord, NY 12404

The staff of the Committee on Open Government is authorized to issue advisory opinions. The ensuing staff advisory opinion is based solely upon the information presented in your correspondence.

Dear Mr. Breite:

I have received your letter of August 9 in which you sought an opinion concerning the propriety of an executive session held by the Rochester Town Board. The Board's agenda indicates that under the heading of "Legal", it entered into an executive session to discuss an appeal made under the Freedom of Information Law. You added that:

"Only the supervisor and the three members of the town board were present at the meeting. There was no legal advisor such as our town attorney. There was no pending litigation on the issue."

From my perspective, it is unlikely that consideration of an appeal under the Freedom of Information Law could justifiably have occurred during an executive session.

In this regard, as a general matter, the Open Meetings Law is based on a presumption of openness. Stated differently, the Law requires that meetings of public bodies be conducted in public, except to the extent that a closed or executive session may properly be held. Paragraphs (a) through (h) of §105(1) of the Law specify and limit the subjects that may be considered in an executive session.

There is no ground for entry into executive session that pertains generally to "legal" matters. The provision most pertinent to those matters is frequently §105(1)(d), which permits a public body to enter into executive session to discuss "proposed, pending or current litigation." While the courts have not sought to define the distinction between "proposed" and "pending" or between "pending" and "current" litigation, it has been determined that the mere possibility, threat or fear of litigation would be insufficient to conduct an executive session. Specifically, it was held that:

"The purpose of paragraph d is 'to enable a public body to discuss pending litigation privately, without baring its strategy to its adversary through mandatory public meetings' (Matter of Concerned Citizens to Review Jefferson Val. Mall v. Town Bd. Of Town of Yorktown, 83 AD 2d 612, 613, 441 NYS 2d 292). The belief of the town's attorney that a decision adverse to petitioner 'would almost certainly lead to litigation' does not justify the conducting of this public business in an executive session. To accept this argument would be to accept the view that any public body could bar the public from its meetings simply be expressing the fear that litigation may result from actions taken therein. Such a view would be contrary to both the letter and the spirit of the exception" [Weatherwax v. Town of Stony Point, 97 AD 2d 840, 841 (1983)].

Based upon the foregoing, I believe that the exception is intended to permit a public body to discuss its litigation strategy behind closed doors, rather than issues that might eventually result in litigation. Again, §105(1)(d) would not permit a public body to conduct an executive session due to a possibility or fear of litigation. As the court in Weatherwax suggested, if the possibility or fear of litigation served as a valid basis for entry into executive session, there could be little that remains to be discussed in public, and the intent of the Open Meetings Law would be thwarted.

In the instant situation, in my view, only to the extent that the Board discussed its litigation strategy would an executive session be properly held. Under the circumstances, that would appear to have been unlikely.

I note, too, that the courts have provided direction with respect to the sufficiency of a motion to discuss litigation, and it has been held that:

"It is insufficient to merely regurgitate the statutory language; to wit, 'discussions regarding proposed, pending or current litigation'. This boilerplate recitation does not comply with the intent of the statute. To validly convene an executive session for discussion of proposed, pending or current litigation, the public body must identify with particularity the pending, proposed or current litigation to be discussed during the executive session" [Daily Gazette Co. , Inc. v. Town Board, Town of Cobleskill, 44 NYS 2d 44, 46 (1981), emphasis added by court].

Further, in a recent decision rendered by the Appellate Division, one of the issues involved the adequacy of a motion to conduct an executive session to discuss what was characterized as "a personnel issue", and it was held that:

"...the public body must identify the subject matter to be discussed (see, Public Officers Law § 105 [1], and it is apparent that this must be accomplished with some degree of particularity, i.e., merely reciting the statutory language is insufficient (see, Daily Gazette Co. v Town Bd., Town of Cobleskill, 111 Misc 2d 303, 304-305). Additionally, the topics discussed during the executive session must remain within the exceptions enumerated in the statute (see generally, Matter of Plattsburgh Publ. Co., Div. of Ottaway Newspapers v City of Plattsburgh, 185 AD2d §18), and these exceptions, in turn, 'must be narrowly scrutinized, lest the article's clear mandate be thwarted by thinly veiled references to the areas delineated thereunder' (Weatherwax v Town of Stony Point, 97 AD2d 840, 841, quoting Daily Gazette Co. v Town Bd., Town of Cobleskill, supra, at 304; see, Matter of Orange County Publs., Div. of Ottaway Newspapers v County of Orange, 120 AD2d 596, lv dismissed 68 NY2d 807)" [Gordon v. Village of Monticello, 207 AD 2d 55, 58 (1994)].

In an effort to enhance compliance with and understanding of the Open Meetings Law, a copy of this opinion will be forwarded to the Town Board.

I hope that I have been of assistance.



Robert J. Freeman
Executive Director


cc: Town Board